Aurangzeb’s policy towards the Deccan sultanates was guided by both imperialist interest and religious consideration. When it came to the land-based armed forces of the Marathas, the standards of the infantry and artillery were comparable to that of the standards of the European forces. As a result, the Saiyids successfully plotted for his dethrone, and roped in the Marathas in the process. Both had large armies of men that would in the 30-year war continue to establish and re-establish dominance in the area. Bahadur Shah was, however, successful in conciliating Chatrasal, the Bundela chief, and Churaman, The Marathas were later criticized for failing to treat their fellow Hindus equally when they were in power. After Shivaji’s demise, the Maratha Empire continued to flourish under his son Sambhaji. Tarabai Bhosale – Tarabai served as the regent of the empire from 1700 to 1708. Akbar also initiated a series of liberal policies such as the abolition of the Pilgrimage Tax and Jiziya between 1562 and 1564 in order to attract support from the Rajputs. Aurangzeb was once partially accountable for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. After defeating the Nawab of Bengal, the British East India Company had assumed power in the east and was now eyeing the northern territory of India, which was being largely controlled by the Marathas. BalajiPeshwa convinced Angria on the futility of a fight and got him to side with Shahu and notTarabai.Eager to curb the growing power of the Marathas, the Mughal king appointed Nizam-ul-Mulk as the governor of the Deccan. • He pursued a conciliatory policy towards Rajputs and Marathas. The Marathas, as they called themselves, were led by Shivaji in a protest against the rule of the Sultanate of Bijapur in 1645. In his illustrious military career, which spanned across a couple of decades, Baji Rao remained undefeated in the battles. The Saiyid brothers were the powerful duo of Saiyid Husain Ali Khan and Saiyid Hassan Ali Khan Barha. Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath – Balaji Vishwanath was the sixth Prime Minister, who gained control of the empire during 18th century. During the Shah Jahan's reign, Aurangazeb, as governor of Deccan, followed an aggressive Deccan policy. The Emperor was being humiliated by Shivaji’s resiliance and sent an army of approximately 15,000 men to retrieve and imprison him. His half brother, Rajaram, took up leadership for the next 11 years. As days passed by, Shahu became more of a puppet at the hands of his Prime Minister Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, who took major decisions for the betterment of the empire. The absence of an alternative strategy towards either the Marathas of the Deccan states, led the Mughals to waste a decade from 1666 to 1676 AD in half-hearted attacks against Shivaji and in encouraging intrigues at the Bijapur court. In 1751, the then Nawab of Bengal, Alivardi Khan agreed to cough up 1.2 million rupees as an annual tax, which increased the already flourishing wealth of the Maratha Empire. It will also point toward British colonisation as the final nail in the coffin for the Mughal empire. What caused the real breakdown of the Mughal Empire was his faulty Deccan policy. Shivaji – Apart from founding the empire, Shivaji was also responsible in turning the Maratha power into a prominent force. Aurangzeb ruled the Mughal empire from 1658,when he forcibly ascended the throne by defeating his brother and imprisoning his father, until his death in 1707. Akbar began to extend his empire towards the South and the rest of the Mughul emperors also followed his policy. The Maratha Empire formally began with the rise of Chhatrapati Shivaji in 1674. In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed as the new Peshwa of the empire, after his father Balaji Vishwanath’s demise in April. From this moment onwards, the already weakened Mughal Empire started fearing the Marathas. His death, after a mere five years in power, sparked yet another expensive competition for the throne (Keay 2000, p.364). However, the first phase of his relations with the Rajputs did not yield complete peace and cooperation, and served as … He escaped in 1666 and returned to continue with his quest to free Hindus from Muslim rule. Bounded by the majestic Himalayan ranges in the north and edged by an endless stretch of golden beaches, India is a vivid kaleidoscope of landscapes, magnificent historical sites, royal cities, colourful people, and rich culture. The extension of the empire was one purpose of Aurangzeb. By the end of 17th century the decline of Mughal power carved out sufficient space for new empire. With every defeat, the Mughal reputation and authority both took hits. Maratha get close to Rajasthan. • Sahu, the son of Shambhaji, who had been in Mughal captivity since the fall of Raigarh, was released, the jeziah imposed by Aurangazeb was withdrawn. It was in the later part of Aurangzeb’s reign (1658-1707) until his death that power began to shift and the Mughal Empire began its downward trajectory. These two states were not only Shia states but also supportive to the Marathas by providing employment and even military training. Balaji Baji Rao – Also called as Nana Saheb, Balaji Baji Rao was one of the most important Prime Ministers of the empire as the actual king was nothing more than a mere figurehead during his tenure. Meanwhile, Tukojirao Holkar defeated a prominent South Indian ruler known as Tipu Sultan in the ‘Battle of Gajendragad,’ which extended the territory of the Marathas till Tungabhadra River in the south. 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