Agricultural Wastes, 11 (1): 61–71, Jawahar Ali A. ; Brendonck, L., 1995. The first author is a researcher of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) under the Post-Doctoral Fellowship Scheme (PDRU Grant) for the project: “Enhancing the Lipid Growth in Algae Cultivation for Biodiesel Production” (Vot No. Oil Palm Res., 23 (1): 953-957, Ong, H. K., 1982. Others minerals such as Fe, Zn, P, Mg, Ca and K that are required for microalgae growth are also present in POME. In Indonesia, the best inclusion rate of dried palm oil mill effluent was 5% since 10-15% depressed feed intake (though without significantly affecting growth and feed conversion). Die Mühle + Mischfuttertechnik, 125 (9): 108–109, Ho, C. C. ; Tan, Y. K. ; Wang, C. W., 1984. Meanwhile, it can be found that other researchers have not focused much on nutrient reduction, which is to be considered more important in relation to the growth of microalgae. During processing of oil palm, more than 70% by weight of the fresh fruit brunch was left over as waste . POME produce huge amount of methane gas from its anaerobic process and has 21 times Global Warming Potential (GWP) … The year 1978 witnessed the enactment of the Environmental Quality Regulations detailing POME discharge standards. The response of weaner pigs to diets containing palm oil slurry. In Ghana, a fresh (82% moisture) effluent with a particularly rich oil content (more than 70% DM) included at 5 or 10% (as fed) in broiler diets increased feed intake and growth performance (Atuahene et al., 1987). Malaysia Oil Palm Refinery Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment. In particular, POME is a basic expression referring to the effluent from the last phases of palm oil manufacture in the mill. One hectare of oil palm produces 10–35 tons of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) per year [2, 33]. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. It takes 5–10 years for palm oil plant to reach the highest yield. Growth conditions for microalgae using POME. The use of palm oil sludge solids in pig feeding. Looking for efficient and sustainable ways to manage your palm oil mill effluent? © 2018 The Author(s). Two cage tippers are used with the individual Ster… Feeding value of oil palm by-products. AIDEnvironment, Friends of the Earth, UK, Wu, T. Y. ; Mohammad, A. W. ; Jahim, J. M. ; Anuar, N., 2009. The utilization of wastewater for the microalgal growth is considered beneficial for limiting the utilization of freshwater, dropping the cost of supplement option, expelling nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater and generating microalgal biomass as bioresources for biofuel or value-added by-products. The idea of using microalgae in wastewater treatment has been investigated since 1950s by Oswald and Gotaas . The authors would like to acknowledge IPASA, RAZAK School and MJIT in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for providing adequate facilities to conduct this research. Discharging the effluents or by-products on the lands or release to the river may lead to pollution and might deteriorate the surrounding environment. At least 44 million tons of POME was produced and are increasing every year in Malaysia , particularly because of the initiative of the government to promote palm oil industry.  have done their studies by focusing on the nutrients reduction in POME, lipid production and microalgae growth. Q.J130000.21A2.03E95). Commercial trials and applications of these technologies are currently underway, especially conversion of the solid residual materials into saleable value-added products. Fresh POME is a thick brownish colloidal blend of water, oil and fine-suspended solids. The contents of the dry matter are characterised by considerable variability with, particularly, the amount of residual oil varying from 5% to more than 70% DM. POME contains high amounts of oil and grease (4000 mg/L) and COD (50,000 mg/L). Effects of varieties, botanical fractions and supplements of palm oil byproducts on the feeding value of rice straw in goats. As a consequence, relatively low amounts (5-15%) should be fed, depending on the process (fresh, dried, fermented), composition and poultry species. In: IV Mesa Redonda Latinoamericana sobre Palma Aceitera, Valledupar, Colombia 8–12 junio 1986, ORLAC FAO p 151-160, Chavalparit, O., 2006. As of now, 85.5% of the biomass residues are originating from the oil palm industry. However, the final treatment by aerobic pond system is struggling to achieve the discharge standards because of inefficient operational design . However, the substances in POME are able to support the growth of microalgae. Treatment of POME is essential to avoid environmental pollution . Thus, the cultured microalgae will be used as a food nutrition for live feed culture  Meanwhile, nitrogen source (usually appears in nitrate form) plays an important role in promoting microalgae growth. Industry in particular agro-based industry is one of the significant divisions releasing extensive amount of wastewater yearly influencing the other water sources and human life. By Hesam Kamyab, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Mohd Fadhil Md Din, Shahabaldin Rezania, Tayebeh Khademi and Ashok Kumar, Submitted: November 25th 2017Reviewed: February 22nd 2018Published: November 5th 2018. 42, pp: 1-19. palm oil mill effluent, from different sources. Degradation properties in the rumen of Kedah-Kelantan cattle. Palm Oil processing gives rise to highly polluting wastewater, known as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME), which is often discarded in disposal ponds, resulting in the leaching of contaminants that pollute the groundwater and soil, and in the release of methane gas into the atmosphere. Anim. As a result, the discharge of palm oil mill effluent has the potential to severely pollute the receiving waterways. Utilization of palm oil sludge in poultry diet. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Int. The feasible way that is more attentions in the present time is the use of microalgae, which is known to have the potential to treat wastewater  such as removal of CO2 and NOx  and high capacity of nutrient uptake . POME consists of water soluble components of palm fruits as well as suspended materials like palm fibre and oil. Palm oil mill effluent (POME)is a yellow liquid with a unique unpleasant smell and comes from oil extraction, cleaning and washing process in the POME factory, which is featured with very high COD and BOD. In particular, palm oil sludge sometimes refers to the decanted effluent (decanter cake). Furthermore, it is necessary to properly address the POME treatment so as not to contribute to human health hazards and environmental pollution. Around 85% of palm oil mills have treated raw POME using biological treatment . Starting with 5.8 ton of FFB about 1 ton of crude palm oil (CPO) is produced . POME while fresh is hot acidic and pH range between 4 and 5, brownish colloidal suspension containing high concentrations of natural matter, high quantities of total solids (40,500 mg/L), oil and grease (4000 mg/L) COD (50,000 mg/L) and BOD (25,000 mg/L) . The final effluent of the treated POME must comply with the discharge standards set by the Department of Environment (DOE), Malaysia. In Thai native cattle fed Plicatulum hay as a roughage source, decanted palm oil effluent included at 40% in the concentrate affected intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites and it was concluded that the optimum level should not exceed 30% (Seephueak et al., 2011). The oil palm has the expectancy of over 200 years, whereas the economic life is about 20–25 years. Palm oil processing is achieved in palm oil mills where oil is removed from a palm oil fruit bunch. There are several environmental and operational factors, which can affect the microalgae growth in order to make the cultivation fruitful. A life cycle assessment on microalgae cultivation has underlined that 50% of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are associated with fertilizer (nutrients) . A. K. ; Togatorop, M. H., 2001. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/15395 Last updated on May 11, 2015, 14:35, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ), Oil palm fronds and oil palm crop residues, Abu, A. Concentration required by the Department of Environment (DOE) is 200 mg/L for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 100 mg/L for total suspended solid (TSS). On 27 October 2020, our evaporation specialist, Amol Hukkerikar, would like to share his knowledge about various solutions that treat POME and their benefits to palm oil mills. Further drying can be done by absorption on dry feeds such as cassava roots, dehydrated grass or palm kernel meal (Pérez, 1997), or by conventional drying methods (Chavalparit, 2006). Z., 2001. An alternative method should be implemented to replace the conventional wastewater treatment method. The waste products generated during palm oil processing consist of oil palm trunks (OPT), oil palm fronds (OPF), empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm pressed fibers (PPF) and palm kernel shells, less fibrous material such as palm kernel cake and liquid discharge POME . In general, culturing of microalgae on a large scale required high nitrogen and other related chemical fertilizers, which driven the process toward non-environmental friendly. The disposal of this very contaminating effluent is turning into a noteworthy issue assuming that it may be not continuously treated appropriately as well as a severe standard boundary obligatory set by the Malaysian Department of Environment for the discharge of effluent. Malaysia produces about 41% of the world’s supply of palm oil as shown in Figure 1. Vairappan and Yen  had found that for the marine Isochrysis sp., the concentration of POME at 5% dilution is the best concentration for culture media due to properties of POME. Blend of oil palm slurry and rice bran as feed ingredient for broiler chickens. Henson, I.E., 1994. On average, 1.5 m3 water is needed to pro-cess 1 t of fresh fruit bunches and half of this ends up as POME. Feeding pigs in the tropics. Utilization of palm oil sludge in poultry diet: 3. There was no advantage in feeding fresh rather than dried fermented effluent in both broilers and native chickens (Sinurat et al., 2001b; Sinurat et al., 2001c). Nutritional values of chironomid larvae grown in palm oil mill effluent and algal culture. This chapter aims to demonstrate that POME could be used as a main source for algae production, and this effluent is one of the main environmental problems in the tropical region especially in Malaysia. These days, palm oil enterprise is developing quickly and turning into a noteworthy agriculture-based industry in Malaysia. A 7.5% inclusion rate also gave better growth and feed efficiency and was also economically viable (Kagya-Agyemang et al., 2008). Feed Sci. , the raw or partially treated POME has an extremely high content of degradable organic matter. 1. Palm oil mill effluent pollution alters soil dehydrogenase activity at the subsoil (15-30 cm) level. Haematological indices, serum cholesterol and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets with palm oil sludge substituting maize. Approximately 0.65 tonnes of raw POME is produced for every ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed. There have been numerous attempts to convert palm oil mill effluent into a viable animal feed resource. The discharge of improperly treated POME creates adverse impact to the environment (Table 2). Nowadays, biological process is the most common practice way for the treatment of POME based on anaerobic and aerobic ponding system . At an average, about 0.1 tonne . Most palm oil millers favor the culture of microalgae as a tertiary treatment before POME is released because of practically low cost and high impact. Palm oil mill effluent is a highly polluting material, due to its high biological oxygen demand (BOD), low pH and colloidal nature. The characteristic of POME based on Malaysian Palm Oil Board is shown in Table 3. Utilizing POME as supplements source to culture microalgae is not an another scenario in Malaysia. Fresh or dried palm oil mill effluent or products derived from it can replace part of the maize in pig diets, but at relatively low amounts (10-15% of the diet DM). Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Characteristics of POME and its respective standard discharge limit by the Malaysian Department of Environment [19, 20]. These days, there is an incredible and nonstop increment in industrialization, foundation and urban expansion in Asia, which has added to the critical wastes demand and water deficiency because of water contamination . As a result, the nutritive value of palm oil mill effluents should be assessed on individual samples. POME is the major source of water pollutant in Malaysia . The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. Since the oil palm industry is tremendous, with 67% of agricultural land secured with oil palm tree, biomass from oil palm contributes the most. J. Agric. Note: palm oil mill effluent, palm oil slurry and palm oil sludge may or may not be synonyms, depending on the context. But it i s the most expensive and difficult waste to manage by mill Technol., 17 (2): 157-162, Atuahene, C. C. ; Donkoh, A. ; Ntim, I., 2000. Large quantities of water are used during the extraction of crude palm oil from the fresh fruit bunch, and about 50% of the water results in palm oil mill effluent (POME). However, this product impaired meat quality, as it decreased the proportion of lean meat and increased the lipid and cholesterol content, as well as its oxidative susceptibility vis-à-vis the accumulation of dangerous lipid peroxidation products (Onibi et al., 2011; Kagya-Agyemang et al., 2008). Most palm oil mills in Malaysia have adopted the ponding system for the treatment of POME . Dried palm oil effluent can be fed to growing rabbits in replacement of maize offals at 10% of the diet without deleterious effect on growth performance (Abu et al., 1993). Palm oil, edible oil, is derived from the meaty mesocarp of the fruit of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Oil palm slurry (OPS) as a partial replacement for maize in the diets of growing-finishing pigs. While the emerging technologies for the treatment of POME, the notion of nurturing POME and its derivatives as valuable resources should not be dismissed. Although, palm oil mill effluent (POME) is not the only waste generated during processing of fresh fruit bunch (FFB). J., 80 (3): 239-249, Bobadoye, A. O. ; Onibi, G. E. ; Fajemisin, A. N., 2006. POME is a colloidal suspension, starting from the blend of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater in a proportion of 9:15:1, respectively . It is hot (80–900°C) and has a high BOD, which is 100 times as contaminating as domestic sewage . 4. If untreated POME is a … Global J. Oil Palm Res., 2 (1): 47-49, Bamikole, M. A. ; Babayemi, O. J., 2008. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. The natural effluent discarded from palm oil mill might be colloidal, dark and viscous, which should be considered prior media preparation for culturing the microalgae . Utilization of palm oil sludge in poultry diet. While the palm oil industry has been recognized strongly for its contribution toward economic growth and rapid development, it has also contributed to environmental pollution due to the production of large quantities of by-products during the process of oil extraction [2, 3]. Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Selangor, Devendra, C., 1985. Greasy palms: The social and ecological impacts of large-scale oil palm plantation development in Southeast Asia. The performance of microalgae growth cultivated in POME is shown in Table 6. Growth (increase in length), cyst production and mortality were generally similar to those obtained with more costly algae, though it was unclear whether this success could be attributed to the nutritional quality of the product or to the colonisation of adventitious micro-organisms, who may either increase the digestibility of the feeds or act as a supplement (Jawahar Ali et al., 1995). At the point when contrasted with those routine wastewater treatment processes which introduce activated sludge and living floc to degrade natural carbonaceous issue to CO2, and microalgae may acclimatize natural toxins into cell constituents, for example, lipid and carbohydrate, therefore attaining pollutant decrease in a more ecological friendly way . The raw palm oil mill effluent is a thick brown liquid and characterized by low PH, high biological and chemical oxygen demand, high salt and suspended solids. Biomass residues from palm oil mills in Thailand: An overview on quantity and potential usage. The discharge can lead to land and aquatic pollution if it is left untreated . Compositional analyses and rumen degradability of selected tropical feeds. The characteristics of POME and its behavior, if discharged directly, in water are described in this chapter. Studies on performance of broiler chickens fed oil palm slurry. Indonesia and Malaysia are the two biggest oil palm manufacturing nations and is rich in various endemic and forest dwelling species . FAO, Division de Production et Santé Animale, Roma, Italy, Habib, M. A. Palm oil mill effluent is a highly polluting material and much research has been dedicated to means of alleviating its threat to the environment. Furthermore, the common conventional treatment is unable to meet the regulations set by the Department of Environment (DOE) with the level of BOD at 100 mg/L. Furthermore, it is necessary to properly address the POME treatment so as not to contribute to human health hazards and environmental pollution. POME is generated mainly from oil extraction, washing and cleaning processes in the mill, and these contain cellulosic material, fat, oil and grease, and so on . Currently, some 85% of POME treat-ment of more than 400 mills in the country is based The discharge of untreated POME creates adverse impact to the environment . Palm Oil Research Institute of digestion process is a practical method of treatment for Malaysia (PORIM) Occasional Paper, no. Rep. Palm oil mill effluent - treatment and utilization. World Rabbit Science, 1 (1): 11-15, Agamuthu, P., 1995. It was estimated that a processing plant with a capacity of 10 tons fresh fruit per hour would need a water treatment plant comparable to that required by a population of half a million inhabitants (Brezing, 1986). In recent decades, Malaysia has been known as one of the world’s leading producers and exporters of palm oil products. The usage of macroalgae and microalgae in the utilization or remediation of the excess nutrients and CO2 present in natural water resources, lagoons and ponds is called as phycoremediation . The yield of oil from the kernel is about 40–50% . Both mesocarp and kernel of fruit produce about 17 t ha−1 yr−1 of oil . Biotechnol. There are several important aspects to be considered during the current study. J. Appl. Right now, the management of POME has developed from treatment of waste for transfer to gainful use of assets. The suspended solid and nutrient content in POME could be able to support the growth of algae. Variety diversity effect on the chemical composition and dry matter degradation characteristics of residue and by-products of oil palm fruits. Sci. The oily waste has to be removed to prevent problems which are considered as hazardous pollutants particularly in the aquatic environments because they are highly toxic to the aquatic organisms. Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. POME wastes are the fiber free non-oil components obtained from the clarification zone of an oil mills. Included at up to 20% of the diet, dried palm oil mill effluent for growing/finishing pigs was feasible but performance was poorer and carcass fat deposition increased with higher rates (Ong, 1982). In 2011, Malaysia was the second biggest oil palm producer in the world, with an aggregate of 16.6 million tons, a sum lesser than 1% from the total world’s supply behind Indonesia. Palm oil mill effluent is a fresh product available in the vicinity of oil palm mills. These methods are regarded as conventional POME treatment method, whereby longer retention time and large treatment areas are required . Palm oil mill effluent tends to concentrate major minerals and trace elements. The liquid waste was known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). A. K. ; Togatorop, M. H., 2001. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper - 132, Phang, O. C. ; Vadiveloo, J., 1992. The identical characteristics of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and olive mill wastewater (OMW) render the possibility of treating these wastes using the similar treatment method. The Malaysian government provides an effort to reduce the effluent of palm oil through licensing system, which mainly consists of effluent standards and effluent charges. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is an important source of inland water pollution when released into local rivers or lakes without treatment. Subsequently, the high organic content of POME makes it possible to convert waste into value-added products, such as biogas. The sample was transported to the laboratory in an ice box and analyzed for microbiological and physicochemical properties within four (4) hours of collection. Oil palm as of now involves the biggest real acreage of cultivated land in Malaysia [30, 31]. Effluent from Palm oil mill According to statistical datum, producing 1ton crude palm oil will generate 0.5tons water water, for a 100t/d palm oil mill factory, it means it will produce 50tons palm oil mill effluent at … Prod., 27: 64-70, Pérez, R., 1997. Despite its biodegradability, POME cannot be discharged without first being treated because POME is acidic and … Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of POME are very high and COD values greater than 80,000 mg/L are frequently reported. Treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a major challenge for many palm oil millers. In South-East Asia, fresh centrifuged sludge solids included at 14% (diet DM) in diets for growing pigs gave lower performance than the control maize diet (650 vs. 700 g/d average daily gain and 3.83 vs. 3.36 feed conversion ratio) (Ong, 1982). Numerous species of microalgae exist in freshwater, seawater or brackish make them appropriate to be grown in great scale reactor on unfertile lands. J. Nutrient intake and physiological responses of Kedah-Kelantan cattle. The world palm oil production is shown in Table 1. There is a requirement for a sound and effective management system in the treatment of these by-products in such a way that will assist to protect the environment and check the deterioration of air and river water quality. The effluent is not hazardous, as no chemicals are added to the extraction procedure , and also acidic with a pH around 4.5 as it contains organic acids in complex forms that are suitable to be used as carbon sources . By utilizing the ingredients present in POME, this study will play a major role to solve the pollution problem resulting from the POME as it will pollute the environment if it is improperly discharged into the environment. Treatment of POME is vital to avoid environmental contamination . Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, 5 (2): 107-112, Sinurat, A. P. ; Bintang, I. PhD Thesis Wageningen University, Devendra, C. ; Yeong, S. W. ; Ong, H. K., 1983. Fresh oil palm mill effluent is fat-rich but its high moisture content makes it difficult to incorporate in standard poultry diets (Atuahene et al., 1987). A POME treatment system based on membrane technology shows high potential for decreasing the ecological issue, and also, this alternative treatment system offers water reusing . Vertical sterilizers are also available, which are much cleaner and easier to operate than conventional sterilizers. , large quantities of water are used during the extraction of crude palm oil from the fresh fruit bunch, and about 50% of the water results in POME. It is also known to be a good source of nutrients . Palm oil mill effluent has been tested as a potential medium for growing animal species used to feed fish and other aquaculture species. Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is the wastewater discharged from the sterilization process, crude oil clarification process and cracked mixture separation process. (eds. In the rainy season, overflow from the wastewater treatment plants causes heavy water pollution to nearby waterways. Fermented palm oil effluent was included at up to 10% of the diet, as higher rates depressed growth (Sinurat et al., 2000). PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT. Its total nitrogen in the range of 400–800 mg/L and suspended solids contents in the range of 18,000–47,000 mg/L. The use of palm oil mill effluent was studied in four Indian carp species, namely silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus). However, the concomitant production of highly polluting palm oil mill effluent, as known as POME, has resulted negative effect of environmental hazards. Hence, the variation of the characteristics of POME, in terms of its quality and quantity, is the main reason that causes selection in the treatment of POME in the palm oil industries [1, 47]. Palm oil mill effluent is a colloidal suspension containing 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids, which include 2-4% suspended solids. Ash ranges from 9 to more than 30% DM and protein is generally low (10-15% DM). , DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75811 discharged into the consideration for both wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies would. Generous amounts of significant plant supplement that shift as indicated by the Malaysian Department of environment ( DOE ) Serdang. A practical method of treatment for Malaysia ( PORIM ) Occasional Paper no... Treatment for Malaysia ( PORIM ) Occasional Paper, no the Malaysian Department of environment ( Table 2 ) agricultural. The best methods to degrade organics in the fruits, and puts academic. 20 ] period is 11–15 months for plants, and first harvest is done after 32–38 months planting... Also suffer from odour emissions caused by poorly managed effluent treatment, dirt, leftover oil suspended. Source of water pollutant in Malaysia [ 13 ] of FFB were processed, resulting in 1,369,521 tonnes FFB. B. ; Yusoff, F. M. ; Amakiri, A. H., 1988 cultured.! 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